2012: Goodbye, Mr. Smoke! Hello, Mr. Gym!

01/01/12 – A new year has just begun. This is the ideal time to reflect on what we did and did not accomplish during the year that has just ended and to set our goals for the year that started a few hours ago. This is also a good time to meditate on the things we need to change about ourselves. A very common practice is to make resolutions for the New Year. But what is a resolution?  A New Year’s resolution is a commitment that a person makes to one or more personal goals, which must be reached by the next New Year. Let’s see some of the most popular resolutions that people make every year:

1. Lose weight and get fit

Especially in this part of the hemisphere, where summer has just started, we are more concerned about our looks and having the perfect body since we all want to look our best either on the beach or by the pool.  Unfortunately, during this time of the year we don’t have thick sweaters covering our body imperfections. However, regardless of where we live, losing weight and getting fit is a present goal in most people’s minds. Haven’t you ever heard the typical “On Monday, I’ll start.”?

 2. Eat healthy food

In the recent years people have become more aware of what they eat either to lose weight or to prevent diseases. So, we try to stay away from burgers and fries, red meat, unhealthy snack foods and drinks like soda and bottled juice.  Instead, we opt for a diet with more vegetables and fruit (if they are organic, that’s even better), whole grains, white meat, and we try to drink as much water as possible.  It is no surprise to see people carrying bottles of water wherever we go.

 3. Quit smoking

Smoking stopped being fashionable a long time ago. Due to massive campaigns showing the serious consequences of this unhealthy habit and to laws forbidding  smoking in public places, people are taking this problem more seriously and are willing to quit smoking not only for themselves but also for their family members and friends. However, this is not an easy thing to do. It takes a lot of determination and willpower, but it is not impossible at all.

 4. Learn something new

Let’s defy the popular phrase “you can’t teach an old dog new tricks” because we believe that it is possible to learn new things at any age. Even on a popular TV show, it was proven that we can actually teach old dogs new things. So, if dogs can do it, why can’t we? If you’ve always dreamt about playing the guitar, dancing like a pro, or sewing your own clothes, this is the year to start learning those things and give yourself a chance. Don’t let age prevent you from pursuing your dreams.

 5. Spend more time with family

Life has indeed become pretty hectic for everybody. People’s common phrase is “I don’t have time”. Most spend 10 -12 hours a day at the office and some even go to study afterwards. Moreover, work doesn’t stop when we leave the office. It follows us home and we continue working after we have dinner and also on weekends. We strongly believe that we are doing this for our family because we want to provide them with everything they need, but we are not aware that what they really need and want is US. You can always send an email or write a report at any given time, but you won’t always have the chance  to see your kid’s first walk.

 We, at Go Esling, also have our resolutions for 2012:

–          To offer new learning tools

–          To increase the number of followers

–          To interact more with our followers

 And we hope you’ll join us in our journey.

 VOCABULARY

1. accomplish (v) : to succeed in doing or completing something Ex: If we work hard, we’ll be able to accomplish our goals.

2. commitment (n) : a promise to do something Ex: We made a commitment to protect animals.

3. disease (n) : an illness affecting humans, animals or plants, often caused by infection Ex: He suffers from a very rare disease.

4. opt (v) : to make a choice or decision. Ex: My grandfather opted for an early retirement

5. whole grains (n) : Foods such as wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley, or products made from these foods that have not been processed and still have all their nutrients Ex: We should eat whole grains every day to prevent some diseases.

6. forbid (v) : to command someone not to do something, to prohibit Ex: The law forbids the sale of alcohol after 11 pm. 

7. willpower (n) : the ability to control your mind and body in order to achieve something that you want to do  Ex: She doesn’t have the willpower to go on a diet.

8. defy (v) : to oppose or resist openly  Ex: The children defied the teacher’s authority and ate gum in class.

9. pro (n) : a professional or an expert Ex: Tom ran the marathon like a pro.

10. pursue (v) : to do something or try to achieve something over a period of time Ex: Mary would like to pursue a career in music.

11. hectic (adj) : very busy or full of activity Ex: I’m very tired because I’ve had a very hectic day.

12. provide (v) : to give something to somebody or make it available for them to use Ex: Don’t take any food because they will provide us with lunch.

Have you ever made resolutions? If so, did you accomplish them? What are your resolutions for 2012? 

Send us your comments, opinions and any kind of feedback to goesling.wordpress@gmail.com. You can either write us an email or send us a voice message.

Passive Voice

The passive voice is an easy topic if we remember these statements:

It is used…

  • When the action is more important than who or what is performing it.
  • When we don’t know the performer of the action.
  • When the object of the sentence is more important than the subject. In this case, we can mention the performer of the action using the preposition by.
  • When we focus on facts or opinions about something.

Passive voice structure

S+ verb to Be + past participle

We can use the passive in different tenses such as the simple present tense, the simple past tense, etc. We can also use the passive voice with modal verbs.

Let’s see some examples of passive with different tenses.

Present tense

  • People eat lots of sugar these days. (active voice)
  • Lots of sugar is eaten (by people) these days. (passive voice)

*Notes:

  1. Here the subject of the active sentence is people and the object is lots of sugar, but in the passive voice the subject is lots of sugar.
  2. The form of the verb to be is determined by the new subject in the passive statement.
  3. The tense of the verb to be is determined by the tense in the active statement.
  4. The past participle is determined by the main verb of the active sentence.

More examples:                                                                  

  • Cars destroy all the trees around the city.                  
  • All the trees around the city are destroyed (by cars).

Simple past

  • Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492.
  • America was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492

Future                                                                       

  • Humans will visit Mars in 20 years.
  • Mars will be visited (by humans) in 20 years.

Modal verbs

  • The major should control crime.
  • Crime should be controlled by the major.

Focusing on opinions or facts (formal English)

When mentioning statements which contain opinions or facts, we can use the passive voice in this way:

  • It is said that water freezes at 0°C.
  • It is believed that women drive better than men.
  • It is thought that the monster of Loch Ness is a dinosaur.

Ho! Ho! Ho! Merry Christmas!

Merry Christmas!  Ho! Ho! Ho! It is the most used expression during this month. Everything is covered with a festive mood. Houses are decorated with red, green, blue and yellow lights. We can hear Christmas carols even in cars. We can see these chubby guys dressed up like Santa everywhere even in gas stations. We can also see kids popping crackers everywhere.  At this time of the year lots of people forget their misunderstandings and try to spend time with their families. It is also a time where people get really stressed out trying to find a good gift for all their relatives and friends.

In this season big companies take advantage of naive customers and offer big discounts. What really calls my attention is the fact that they started with this ¨Christmas spirit¨ in October. Unbelievable, but funny. I still remember when I went to a supermarket and half of it was decorated with the orange and black colors of Halloween and the other half was with red and green decorations of Christmas.

Don’t take my words as if I didn’t like Christmas, but I think that the real spirit is not about offering discounts or the ultimate toys. It is a big chance to share and spend a great time with people you love either with turkey, pork or chicken. That’s why I love Christmas.

I admire people who can´t afford to buy any gifts, but as long as they are together, they are really strong and happy. Also I’d like to say that even though I don’t live in a neighborhood covered by a layer of white snow, with my Christmas tree shining is enough.

I want to extend these final lines for those who are reading this post, to share part of my spirit and wish you  Merry Christmas to all of you.

Christmas is not giving.  It is love and sharing.

Vocabulary

Merry (adj): Happy Ex. I want to wish you a Merry Christmas!

Festive mood: A nice and enjoyable state. Ex. During the village anniversary, you can see a festive mood everywhere.

Chubby (adj): Heavy set in a way that is cute. Ex. My best friend’s baby was so chubby that pinching her cheeks was mandatory.

Dress up (v): Wear a custom. Ex. On Halloween, kids dress up like zombies.

Pop (v): To explode, to blow up. Ex. Corn starts to pop with heat.

Cracker (n): Tiny fireworks. Ex: Chinese invented crackers.

Misunderstanding (n): Disagreement. Ex: The Beatles separated because of their misunderstandings.

Naive (adj): Innocent, that believes everything. Ex: My little niece is so naive that she thinks I have a treasure.

Ultimate (adj): The best  Ex. If I won the lottery, I’d buy the ultimate Ferrari.

Extend (v): To ample, to add. Ex. The new book edition extended their content with appendixes.

How do you celebrate Christmas? Do you get stressed out during this season? What’s the best gift you have ever received on Christmas? Why was it special?

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Uses of The Infinitive

*As the subject of a sentence:

     To forgive is not always easy.

     To wait for people drives me crazy.

*After certain verbs (forget, need, want, allow, teach, decide, etc)

I forgot to call my friend.

I can’t afford to buy a new car.

*After adjectives (glad, happy, pleased, relieved, sad, surprised, shocked, etc) to describe people’s feelings.

I’m pleased to meet you.

He was shocked to see his mother after so many years.

*After the structure  too + adjective:

Im  too old to work in a mine.

He is too short to play basketball.

*After the structure  adjective + enough:

He is not good enough to get that promotion.

My sister is rich enough to buy all those expensive clothes.

*After the verb to be as a complement

His last wish was to visit his old school.

One of my duties is to enter students’ data.

*To indicate the purpose or intention of an action

She went to Paris to study French.

I’m studying hard to get a better job.

Times of changes: give yourself a chance

Have you ever wondered if you are in the right place doing what you are supposed to be doing? Sometimes we get those “what ifs” like what if I changed my job or what if I moved to another city, but we remain doing nothing about it. But why? The main reason is that we are afraid of taking risks since we don’t know what the outcomes may be. We fear the unknown.  So, we tend to keep our ten-year job because we feel safe doing it. We know our duties, we are familiar with all the procedures, with the staff, and even with the problems and annoyances that arise from working there.

There is nothing wrong in keeping a job for 10, 15 or even 20 years if we really love what we do, if we are truly happy in that environment we call work.  However, if we feel frustrated, dissatisfied, bored, and we really wish things were different, it is time to step out of our comfort zone and take a chance for ourselves.

I’m almost positive that deep down we all know what we would like to be doing or at least what other things we would like to try. We all more or less have an idea of what we are passionate about, but we don’t dare to unbury our passions and inner desires because we are too scared of failing and losing everything.  In order to overcome our fears, it is essential that we have faith in ourselves. We have to believe that we have the potential, the skills and whatever it takes to succeed in what is going to become our next new adventure. It doesn’t matter if everyone around us keeps telling us “Hey, you can do it” or “You would be so good at this” if we don’t believe that ourselves.  Are we that inept or incompetent that we can’t get anything better? Is the place where we are now the highest mountain we could ever climb? Of course not. There are higher mountains to be climbed and we have the tools to conquer them.

Another important aspect of changes is that is not enough to wish for  something new to happen, but we also need to be looking for opportunities and be ready when they knock at our doors.  Sitting on a couch won’t lead us anywhere.  We should keep ourselves up to date getting all the necessary and latest information about the new field we want to explore, and we’d better brush up on our German if we are planning on becoming the new Marketing Designer at BMW.

It’s not easy to embrace change and start over but we need to remember that we are not alone. There are people around us ready to give us a hand in case we start trembling or think we may fall. And even if we don’t succeed at the first attempt, we should not give up, ever.  Steve Jobs once said, “If you haven’t found it yet, keep looking. Don’t settle.” And, indeed, we shall never settle.

VOCABULARY

1. outcome (n): the result or effect of an action, situation, etc   Ex: It’s difficult to predict the outcome of the meeting.

2. annoyance (n): something that makes you slightly angry  Ex: Traffic was one of the greatest annoyances that I found in the city.

3.arise (out of/from) (v): to happen as a result of a particular situation  Ex: Health problems can arise from bad eating habits.

4. comfort zone (n): a situation or position in which a person feels secure, comfortable, or in control  Ex: Staying in our comfort zone can be very limiting.

5.deep down (ex): if you know something deep down, you know your true feelings about it, although you may not admit them to yourself Ex: Deep down she was still in love with Jack.

6. dare (v): to be brave enough to do something difficult or dangerous   Ex: Do you dare to  tell him the news?

7. unbury (v): remove from the ground. (Fig) uncover, reveal   Ex: This is not a good time to unbury the past. Let’s move on.

8. overcome (v): to defeat or succeed in controlling or dealing with something    Ex: She finally managed to overcome her shyness and went to the graduation party.

9.lead (v): take somebody somewhere     Ex: The waiter led us to our table.

10. brush up on sth(v): to quickly improve a skill, especially when you have not used it for a time.    Ex: I need to brush up on my Italian before going to Rome.

11. embrace (v): to accept something enthusiastically   Ex: He rapidly embraced the idea of hiring two more assistants.

12. tremble (v): to shake in a way that you cannot control, usually because you are very nervous, excited, scared, cold, etc. To feel fear or anxiety.  Ex: I trembled at the thought of having to make a speech.

13. settle (v): to become quiet and calm    Ex: You need to improve yourself, do better, never settle.

Do you love what you do? What are your dreams? What’s the most life changing experience you’ve ever had?

Send us your comments, opinions and any kind of feedback to goesling.wordpress@gmail.com. You can either write us an email or send us a voice message.

Gerunds

Working with gerunds can be a bit confusing since many people think that gerunds are present continuous, both use the present participle (also known as the –ing form of the verb) but  the truth  is that while the present continuous is used to talk about actions in progress, the gerunds are used in many ways. If you remember these tips, you won’t have any problems.

*As a subject

Working as a teacher is a rewarding experience.

Exercising helps to release stress.

*After some verbs (enjoy, mind, dislike, hate, etc.) 

I like playing the guitar.

I hate eating pasta.

*After the verb to be (to indicate activities)

The main activity in the company is making toys.

The only thing he likes to do is sleeping.

*After prepositions (for, with, of, on, in, about, from, etc.)

I’m really interested in learning English

He is thinking about moving out. 

*After adjectives

Chronic snoring is detected in overweight people.

Brazilian dancing has become very popular.

Your life in a song

How many times have you been next to the radio singing along that song that makes you remember all your past memories? How many times have you sung in the shower? Well, you are not the only one who has done it.  And it is just because music has been part of our lives since we were born or even before that. It can’t be denied that when listening to a song, we tend to relate it to some past experiences or to our lives today. That’s how we have music for broken hearts, music for optimistic people, and catchy music for dancing people.

For those who can play any musical instrument, the situation is even better. The reason is that not only can they sing, but also they can play their favorite music. There is a great number of people who became musicians with the objective to be like their music heroes. The question is why do we have that penchant for music? The answer is a simple but uncertain “I don’t know”. It’s a mystery why music has been considered as the expression of our souls.

Not many people seem to realize the influence that music has on us. Consciously or unconsciously, we feel identified with the lyrics of a song. Maybe it is in our genes. What is really curious is the reaction a song can trigger. I can assume from my humble opinion that everybody has cried, smiled or laughed at least once with a song.

Another interesting thing about music is all the music bands that appeared and were able to instill a way of thinking in multiple generations. Many of these thoughts have remained unalterable through the years. That can explain why we can still hear songs that were made 40 or 50 years ago. Why is this special? To answer this question, it is enough to see the impressive number of people who listen to these songs now but hadn’t been born when these songs were released.

We don’t know for sure what else can be done with music, but what we really know is that as long as people never lose their feelings, music will be there for us, the melancholic, the passionate, the dreamers who enjoy a good song.

Vocabulary

Assume (v): To accept an idea based on suppositions. Ex: Wow! You studied all night long. I assume you will have a good score in you exam.

Catchy (adj): Very nice and easy to remember.  Ex: All new singers prefer to write catchy lyrics to have more fans.

Instill (v): To make somebody think or behave in a particular way. Ex: Gandhi wanted to instill the idea of peace among his pupils.

Melancholic (adj): Sad. Ex: I feel melancholic when I remember my grandpa. He died many years ago.

Penchant (n): A preference. Ex: My brother has a penchant for fish. He thinks it is delicious.

Release (v): To Publish, to show. Ex: The new movie will be released next year.

Sing along (v): To sing a song while this song is being played on the radio or a person is singing it. Ex: Every time I hear that song, I can’t help singing along.

Trigger (v): To cause, to provoke. Ex: Smoking can trigger lung cancer.

Unalterable (adj): That can’t be changed, immutable. Ex: The rules of the game are unalterable regardless of who is playing. No one can change them.

Uncertain (adj): Unclear. Ex: It’s really uncertain how she could get a promotion especially when she was always late.

What song makes you feel melancholic? happy? Do you sing along when you hear your song on the radio?

Send us your comments, opinions and any kind of feedback to goesling.wordpress@gmail.com. You can either write us an email or send us a voice message.

As we can see music is everywhere, even in the expressions we use in our daily conversations. Here are a few examples:

 And all that jazz:  And other similar things,  and things like that.  Ex: I need paper, scissors, color pens and all that jazz to make the cards.

Call the tune (shot):  To be the person who controls a situation.  Ex:Tom was running the business, but his father was still calling the tunes.

Face the music:  To accept the negative consequences of something you have done wrong. Ex: After failing his English exam,  Jason went home and had to face the music.

For a song: Very cheaply, at a low price.  Ex:She bought that house for a song because it was very old.

It takes two to tango: If two people are involved in a bad situation, both must be responsible. Ex: Linda blames Becky for stealing her husband, but well, it takes two to tango.

Strike a chord (with sb): To cause someone to remember something; to be familiar or to show some connection with their lives.  Ex: The boy in the old photograph struck a chord with me. Later I realized it was my father.

SMS: Mom, can you pass me the salt, please?

It’s a fact that our lives are way different from our parents´ lives 20 years ago. It’s easy to notice because now we have something called smart phones.  But how has this device affected our lives? And what does it have to do with families? Well, the answer is simple. It has to do a lot. It’s funny how parents use technology as nannies. Every time I go to a family reunion, I can see the adults on one side of the house and the children on the other side taking pictures with their cell phones, twittering or posting something on Facebook. It seems that the remedy to prevent offsprings from jumping and hanging around you is to give them a cell phone and they will leave you alone.

Some days ago in a restaurant something funny caught my attention. There was a family sitting around a table, each member with a smart phone. They were minding their own businesses and not talking to each other at all until one of the kids talked to his mother and said, ¨there you are, I left you a message on your Facebook wall mom¨, and then the rest of the ¨quality time¨ remained in silence.

I’ve got to be honest. I have one of these gadgets at home. Fortunately for me, I haven’t become dependent on it yet.  People will say I am just exaggerating, but cell phones have such an influence on our lives that even a new phobia has been created. I’m talking about the Nomophobia (no-mobile-phone phobia) which consists on the fear people have when not having a cell phone. I could see that when the Blackberry service collapsed and all its network broke down. It was really pitiful to hear a person saying, ¨My God! What am I gonna do now? How am I gonna survive without my cell phone?” It made me wonder how dependent people are on their cell phones in the present time and how much they will be in 10 years. It is really outrageous and scary to think that in the future people will use their cell phones to “talk” to each other even when sitting around the same table.

I don’t pretend to tell you what to do. I just want to say that every minute you spend talking to your parents or friends is priceless. Think about it before sending a message saying “I love you” to your friend. It’s better to say it to that person directly. It will grant you a hug or even better a kiss.

Vocabulary

Break down (v): Stop working

Collapse (v): Fail.

Gadget (n): An electronic item.

Grant (v): To give.

Offspring (n): Formal way to refer to children or kids.

Outrageous (adj): Shocking, unpleasant.

Pitiful (adj): Pathetic.

Prevent someone/something from doing an action (v): To stop someone/something from doing something.

Priceless (adj): Really important, with a lot of value.

Remain (v): Prevail invariably.

Are you nomophobic? Have you ever been without a cell phone? What did you do?

Send us your comments, opinions and any kind of feedback to goesling.wordpress@gmail.com. You can either write us an email or send us a voice message.

INDIRECT QUESTIONS

Direct Question: How dependent are people on their cell phones?

Indirect Question: I  wonder how dependent people are on their cell phones.

When we want to know something we can use a direct question (What time is it?) or we can also use an indirect question (Could you tell me what time it is?).

Both have the same meaning but we use indirect questions when we want to be more polite or more formal.

An indirect question is a question that is part of a statement or another question.

I don’t know what his name is. (part of a statement)

Do you know what his name is? (part of a question)

We form the indirect questions following the same order as a positive sentence (Subject+Verb).

Direct: Where are you from? 

Indirect: Can you tell me where you are from?

Since we are following the same order as a regular sentence, we don’t need the auxiliary DO.

Direct: What does she want?  

Indirect: Do you know what she wants?

NO:         Do you know what does she want?

Direct: Where did she go?   

Indirect: Do you know where she went?

NO:         Do you know where did she go?

When the direct question doesn’t have a question word (who, what, when, etc), we need to use if or whether in the indirect question. For example:

Direct: Is there any coffee?         

Indirect: Can you tell me if there is any coffee?

Direct: Did she go the party?       

Indirect: Can you tell me whether she went to the  party?                                                                   

Here are some of the most common phrases used for asking indirect questions:

Can/Could you tell me … ?
I wonder / was wondering ….
I have no idea …
I’d like to know…

I don’t know…

I’m not sure…

OUR WORKPLACE – AN EVERYDAY SITCOM

It looks like an ordinary day at work – people at their stations minding their own business – when suddenly you just feel as if you were on a Seinfeld’s or Friend’s episode. Haven’t you ever felt as if you happened to be on a TV show surrounded by some weird, unique, though funny characters?

Sometimes I think that we are wasting the opportunity to become rich and famous. Actually, we should be having cameras recording 24/7 what happens within the walls of our offices, factories or wherever we happen to work. Beyond doubt, it would become a huge TV success, an Emmy-worthy show.

Regardless of where you work or what you do for a living, I’m quite positive you’ll find some of these characters near you:

a) Mr. Joker: He’s always making fun of everybody, calling people names and playing jokes. A piece of advice: don’t let him know his jokes bother you because then he won’t leave you alone.

b) Miss Princess: She walks with her head a little high pretending to be on a red carpet. If you get a “good morning” from her, you are on your lucky day. Since she lives in a fantasy world, don’t expect smart answers from her. Instead, be prepared to receive the most airheaded, frivolous comments.

c) Mr. Lazy Messy: You can find everything in his station. From a three-week old tuna sandwich to a client’s report stained with coffee. Don’t ask him anything because he’s always busy. Yes, busy reading the sports section, commenting on a friend’s picture on Facebook or sending his hourly tweet.

d) Miss Candy Sweet: Nothing seems to upset her. At all times she’ll talk to you with a beaming smile and her sparkling eyes. But be careful, deep inside she may be cursing you.

e) Miss Snacker: If you hear someone munching, that’s definitely her. She can barely speak to you as she is with the mouth full at all times. So, if you feel like eating that energy bar you brought from home, you’d better hide it and go somewhere away from her like the roof or the men’s room.

f) Mr. Always Right:  It doesn’t matter if the sun is shining. If he says “it’s night-time”, it is night-time. If he says something happened or did not happen, take his word for it because he is never wrong. God made him that way and we can’t fight that.

g) Mr. Loony: Sometimes you may find him talking to himself and even laughing with no one around him. He’s constantly watching all your movements with his creepy eyes. He rarely speaks to you but when he does, we highly recommend you listen to him and play along with whatever thing he says. You really wouldn’t like to upset him, would you?

h) Mr. Buddy: He’s everybody’s boss. This is the most pathetic character because while he wants to be everybody’s friend, nobody wants to be his friend. To make matters worse, he doesn’t give up and he’s always making every effort to make people like him by telling jokes or showing concern when someone has problems. He’s always trying to find out when the next party is, so he can show up even though he’s never invited.

i) Mrs. Grumpy: Never expect a smile from her. She’s always complaining about everybody’s mistakes and flaws. Even the clients and the company itself are not safe from her harsh comments. So, if you need to send her a report, make sure you’ve proofread it a thousand times.

j) Mrs. Mummy: If you don’t feel well or something worries you, you can always count on her. She’ll listen to you and even cry with you. She’d better not find out that you’ve had a fight with one of your office siblings because she won’t leave the office until you guys make up and finish the day with a hug.

And we can go on and on. I have to admit that I’d be Mrs. Grumpy. Don’t blame me for wanting everything to work the way they are supposed to work, and yes, it bothers me greatly when they don’t. Is it too hard to do the things we are required to do? So, being able to find these characters in the real world makes me think that there must be an eccentric Cosmo Kramer, a goofy Ross Geller or a socially inept Sheldon Cooper somewhere on this planet….who knows maybe next to you.

Vocabulary

1. station (n): an area where a person is assigned to work.

2. Emmy-worthy (adj): having the merit and qualities to deserve an Emmy Award.

3. call someone names (exp): to use unpleasant words to describe someone in order to insult them.

4. airheaded (adj): lacking seriousness, stupid.

5. beaming (adj): cheerful and bright

6. curse (v): to say or think bad things about someone or something because they have made you angry.

7. take someone’s word for it (exp): to believe that something is true because someone tells you it is.

8. munch (v): to eat something noisily.

9. loony (n): a crazy or strange person.

10. harsh (adj): severe, cruel.

11. proofread (v): to read and correct a piece of written or printed work.

12. make up (with sb) (v): to become friends with somebody after an argument.

13. socially inept (exp): having no social skills and therefore unable to judge and improvise interactions with other people in an acceptable or ‘normal’ way.

 

Have you ever worked with people with similar personality traits (characteristics)? Are there any other peculiar characters where you work? Which of these characters would you be and why?

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VERBS AS ADJECTIVES

To use verbs as adjectives, we have to work with their participles, that is, the present and the past participles.

Present participles

We can use the present participle of the verb, also known as the -ing form, as an adjective when we want to describe the characteristics or qualities of a person or an object. For example:

    • My dog frightens all my neighbors. It’s a frightening dog.
    • That movie shocked all the audience. It was a shocking movie.
    • The new teacher bores the students. He is a boring teacher.

Some other participles used as adjectives: exciting, interesting, disappointing, etc.

Past participles

We use the past participle of the verbs as adjectives when we talk about people’s feelings or reactions.

    • There is a dog that has bitten all the people in my neighborhood. I am frightened of that dog.
    • My cousin saw a movie with lots of violence yesterday. She felt really shocked.
    • My new teacher only talks and talks. He never says anything new. I am bored.

We can also use the past participle when we want to refer to a characteristic of an object. This characteristic is the result of a previous action. For example:

  • Someone broke the window. My window was broken. It is a broken window.

Here we are talking about the characteristic of the window as a result of an action.

Another example:

  • Someone stole my sister’s car. The car was stolen. It was a stolen car.

Some other participles used as adjectives: bitten, drunk, confused, interested, etc.